Ammonia SynthesisTechnologies & Measures
|Technology or Measure||Energy Savings Potential||CO2 Emission Reduction Potential Based on Literature||Costs||Development Status|
The investment cost for a 300,000 tonne per year reactor is 150 million yen, and the payback period is 1.5 years (1999 figures) (ECCJ, 1999, p. 149).
|Low Pressure Drop Synthesis Reactor in Combination with Smaller Particle Size Catalysts|
For a 1 100 tpd plant, retrofit costs were US $ 1 million [1993 values] (FAI, 2013)
Conversion to radial flow or radial-axial flow converters require major retrofits in existing equipment, involving high costs and shut down times.
|Using Low-Pressure Ammonia Synthesis Catalysts||Commercial|
|Waste Heat Recovery from Synthesis Gas Compressor|
The investment cost is estimated at 60 million Yen, and the payback period is about 2 years [1999 values] (ECCJ, 1999 p.153).
|Installation of a Purge Gas Hydrogen Recovery Unit|
The investment cost of a hydrogen recovery unit (membranes or cryogenic separation) is estimated at about €10/GJ, while the operation and maintenance costs are estimated at €0.25/GJ (Nieuwlaar, 2001 p.21)
|Synthesis Gas Molecular Sieve Dryer And Direct Synthesis Converter Feed||Commercial|
|Improve The Ammonia Synthesis Configuration||Commercial|
|Additional Radial Flow Ammonia Converter With High Pressure / Medium Pressure Boiler|
Implementation costs for a 1 500 tpd plant are in the range of US $ 10 million [2007 figures] (FAI, 2013).
|Improving the Efficiency of Synthesis Gas Cooler|
For a 1 500 tpd plant, required investment is in the range of US $1 million [2009 values] (FAI, 2013).
|Recycling of Flashed Gases into Synthesis||Not available.||Commercial|
|Compressor Seal Leak-off Gas Recovery||Not available.||Commercial|
Ammonia Synthesis Reference Documents
Reference Document on Best Available Techniques for the Manufacture of Large Volume Inorganic Chemicals - Ammonia, Acids and Fertilisers
Prepared by the Institute for Prospective Technical Studies of European Commision, this document provides detalied information on Best Available Technologies applicable to Ammonia production – as well as on the production of Acids and Fertilizers.