Batch and Cullet PreheatingCosts & Benefits
|Parent Process: Melting and Refining|
|Energy Savings Potential||
Specific energy savings of between 10 and 20 % can be achieved (IPTS/EC, 2013. p. 319)
By installing a cullet/batch preheating heat exchanger, a packaging glass company in Netherlands was able to raise the temperature of cullet to 277 °C, which reduced electric boosting by 60 (or 90 kWh/t) and natural gas usage by 8% (or by 0.32 GJ/t) (Worrell et al., 2008. p.68).
|CO2 Emission Reduction Potential|
For a 350 tonnes/day cross-fired regenerative furnace, the additional investment cost associated with the use of the preheater is about € 2.5 million, including some adaptations in the batch-charging machinery. The annual operational cost savings are about € 820 000 per year, assuming a fuel price of € 9.4 per GJ gross combustion value. The average cost savings during the furnace campaign are estimated at € 3 per tonne molten glass, calculated on the basis of 2013 energy prices (IPTS/EC, 2013. p.320).
The application of batch/cullet preheating to a 450 tonne/day furnace allows for an increase in pull capacity from 450 to 500 tonnes/day and for saving energy. The investment costs are € 3.4 million and cost savings (based on a 500 tonne/day capacity) are € 1.1 million per year. In this case, the payback time is three years. The total cost savings are equivalent to € 5 – 6 per tonne glass, partly due to the increased melting capacity of the furnace without the need of enlarging its structure (IPTS/EC, 2013. p.320).
Installation of a cullet/batch preheating heat exchanger in a a packaging glass company in Netherlands in 1996 costed $ 1.4. The project had a payback time of 2.6 years, based on natural gas prices of $4.11/GJ and electricity prices of $0.05/kWh (Worrell et al., 2008. p.68).
Batch and Cullet Preheating Publications
Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Glass Industry - An ENERGY STAR® Guide for Energy and Plant Managers
Prepared primarily with the US Glass Industry, this document provides information about energy efficiency measures applicable to glass manufacturing, including performance and cost benchmarks whenever possible.
Batch and Cullet Preheating Reference Documents
As a reference of the EU Industrial Emissions Directive (2010/75 EU) this new version provides extensive information on Best Available Techniques (BATs) applicable to European Glass Manufacturing Industry for reducing environmental impact. The document is prepared by the Institute for the Prospective Technological Studies of European Commission's Joint Research Center.