Black Liquor GasificationCosts & Benefits
|Parent Process: Chemical Recovery|
|Energy Savings Potential||
Theoretical balance calculations show that a black-liquor-based Integrated gasification with combined cycle (IGCC) technology may reach a power efficiency of about 30 % calculated on the heat value of the black liquor. This may be compared with 12-13 % for the conventional recovery boiler. In other words, IGCC can increase power production by about 900 kWh/ADt, while at the same time reducing heat production by 4 GJ/ADt - which is more than a typical surplus in a Kraft mill (BREF, 2010. p. 310). Fuel savings of 1.6 GJ/t pulp is estimated for a complete gasification and combined cycle (Martin et al., 2000. p. 37).
|CO2 Emission Reduction Potential||
It is also expected that black liquor gasification will reduce emissions of SOx,NOx,CO, volatile organic compounds, particulate matter, CH4, etc.
A study estimated total investment costs for gasification systems for a 2 720 ton of black liquid solids per day system to be $234 million for low-temperature system and $194 million for high-temperature system (2002 dollars) (US EPA, 2010. p.45). The investment cost of the technology is expected to cost $320/t production. Operation and Maintenance cost is estimated to be $6.9/t pulp (Martin et al., 2000. p. 37).
Black Liquor GasificationSchematic
Black Liquor Gasification Publications
Available and Emerging Technologies for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from the Pulp and Paper Manufacturing Industry
Opportunities to Improve Energy Efficiency and Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the U.S. Pulp and Paper Industry
Published July 2000