Blended Cement AlternativesTechnologies & Measures
|Technology or Measure||Energy Savings Potential||CO2 Emission Reduction Potential Based on Literature||Costs||Development Status|
For a cement containing 30 to 70% of GBFS, energy consumption can be reduced by 0.42 to 1.88 GJ/t-cement.
In India, reductions in thermal energy demand in the range of 0.85-2.0 GJ/t-cement are reported.
For a cement containing 30 to 70% of GBFS, CO2 emissions can be reduced by 100 to 430 kg per every ton of cement.
|Investments necessary for retrofitting existing plants are estimated to be in the range of € 5 to 10 million (US $ 7 to 14 million)||Commercial|
|Cement with Fly Ash|
For every ton of clinker substituted, energy needed for clinker production can be saved (GNR World Average: 3.58 GJ/t-clinker)
For every ton of clinker substituted, CO2 emissions associated with its production can be avoided (GNR World Average: 855 kg/t-clinker)
|Cement with Pozzolana|
Thermal energy use decreases by 0 - 600 MJ/t cement; electricity use decreases by 0 - 25 KWh/t cement.
The process-related emission reduction in the range of 0.52 tonne CO2 per every tonne of clinker replaced by pozzolana is possible.
Investment cost for retrofit is estimated to be € 8 to 12 millions. Capital costs are due to extra storage capacity for the pozzolana and the cements as well as the technical equipment for handling and drying of the pozzolana.
|Limestone Portland Cement|
For a cement with 25 to 35% by mass limestone, thermal energy demand will decrease by 0.22 to 0.60 GJ/t-cement. Electricity demand will also decrease by 12–23 kWh/t-cement
For a cement with 25 to 35% by mass limestone, direct and indirect CO2 emission reductions can be 50 to 140 t CO2/t-cement and 6 to 16 kg CO2/t-cement.
Capital costs for extra storage capacity for the other main constituents and the new cements as well as the technical equipment for handling and drying of these constituents may be € 8-12 million.
Blended Cement Alternatives Publications
The report represents the independent research efforts of the European Cement Research Academy (ECRA) to identify, describe and evaluate technologies which may contribute to increase energy efficiency and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from global cement production today as well as in the medium and long-term future.