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Carbon Capture and Storage

Carbon capture and storage (CCS) for cement industry involves capturing the CO2 arising from the combustion of fuels and from the treatment of raw materials and storing it away from the atmosphere for a very long period of time. The technology is considered to become an emerging approach for CO2 abatement.

In principle three basic technologies are known to capture CO2: pre-combustion capture, oxyfuel combustion and post-combustion capture. For Cement industry, oxyfuel combustion and post-combustion capture are regarded to be the alternative approaches (ECRA, 2009). Many of the carbon capture applications are currently at demonstration or research phase. Transport and storage of compressed CO2 are available techniques, however limited today to specific applications. Experiences on a larger scale are not available. It should be noted that CCS costs high, and the adoption of the technology in industry is highly dependent on policy intervention (ECRA, 2007).

Carbon Capture and StorageTechnologies & Measures

Technology or MeasureEnergy Savings PotentialCO2 Emission Reduction Potential Based on LiteratureCostsDevelopment Status
Post Combustion CO2 Capture Using Absorption Technologies

Thermal and electrical energy use increases by 1 - 3.5 MJ/t-clinker and by 50 to 90 kWh/t-clinker, respectively. 

Up to 90% of the CO related to clinker production can be captured.  CO2 emissions linked to the absorption and regenertion steps will need to be taken into consideration. 

EU flag Reductions of 740 kg CO2/t-clinker are estimated. 

Investment costs are estimated to be €100 - 300 million in 2030 and € 80 - 250 million in 2050.  

Operational costs are estimated to be €10 - 50/t-clinker for 2030 and € 10 - 40/t-clinker for 2050.  

Carbonate Looping Technology

Not available

Calcination related CO2 emissions (~ 0.52 t CO2/t-clinker) can be avoided if the spent sorbent is used to replace CaCO3.

Not available

Post Combustion Capture Using Membrane ProcessesNot available.

EU flag More than 700 kg CO2/t-clinker can be reduced.

EU flag Specific costs are estimated to be €45–50/t CO2 for 2015 and €25/t CO2.