CastingTechnologies & Measures
|Technology or Measure||Energy Savings Potential||CO2 Emission Reduction Potential Based on Literature||Costs||Development Status|
Energy savings are reported to be 5.86 GJ/t-billets (UNIDO, 2011. p. 42)
|Efficient Ladle Preheating|
In a US based facility installation of recuperative heaters reduced fuel consumption for ladle preheating by 28%. This system saves approximately 14 TJ/y of natural gas.
Emissions reduction of 1.1 kg CO2/t-steel is estimated (US EPA, 2010).
Capital costs of ladle heaters are reported to be $70 000/unit (Worrell et al., 2010. p. 97).
|Efficient Tundish Heating|
In a US based plant, installation of recuperative tundish heaters reduced fuel consumption for tundish heating by 26%. Total annual energy savings of the equipment is reported to be 1.05 TJ (Worrell et al., 2010. p. 97).
A recuperative tundish heater was intalled at a US based plant at a cost of $ 45 000 (Worrell et al., 2010. p. 97).
|Direct Rolling (Integrated Casting and Rolling)|
The specific energy consumption should be 40% lower than that needed for a traditional rolling mill. Energy savings of 60% with regard to the traditional cycle are possible.
In an application in Japan equipment and construction costs were approximately ¥200 million and ¥50 million, respectively (NEDO, 2008).
|Endless Strip Production (ESP)|
Specific energy consumption decreases by 40 – 60% as compared to a traditional rolling mill.
Environmental emissions will drastically decrease due to reduced energy consumption by avoiding reheat furnaces.
Processing costs are lower due to reduced consumption of energy and other consumables.
|Thin Slab Casting - Near Net Shape Casting|
TSC is estimated to reduce energy consumption by 4.9 GJ/t-crude steel.
TCS is estimated to reduce CO2 emissions by 779 kg per ton of product.
Investment costs for a large-scale plant were estimated to range from $234.9/t-product with a resultant cost savings of approximately $31/t-crude steel.
|Strip Casting – Castrip® Process|
Compared to thick slab casting (hot rolling, pickling and cold rolling), the Castrip® process saves approximately another 2 GJ/t.
Correleating from the energy savings reported in APP (APP, 2010. p.94), the process is estimated to redcue CO2 emissions by 80-90% comparing to conventional casting.
The savings over traditional thick slab continuous casting include 0.32-0.55 GJ/t for electricity and 1.2-1.5 GJ/t for fuel (US EPA, 2010. p.25).
|Integrated Casting and Rolling|
Energy savings can range from 35% to close to 100%.
CO2 emissions are reduced due to reduced fuel consumption.
|Using Unheated Tundish|
This technology will result in 78% reduction of natural gas consumption.
Fuel savings will lead to emissions reduction.
The life time of the tundish lids will increase by 90%.
|In-Situ Real-Time Measurement of Melt Constituents|
it is estimated that worldwide application of this technology in steel plants can save 27.4 PJ of energy.
Commercial cost ranges from $750000 to $2 million. A US-DOE project aims at producing the system costing less than $100,000.
|Continuous Temperature Monitoring and Control|
An improvement in energy efficiency of up to 5 % is expected by the application of this technology.
This technology reduces costs of rejections and re-works/re-melts.
|MGGate for Continuous Caster|
Each 10% Increase in sequence length offers the possibility of a 0.1% reduction in steel production energy use. If this technology is adopted all across the US, annual energy savings can be 2.1 PJ.
Initial capital cost ranges from $175,000 to $250,000 per strand.
|On-line Laser-ultrasonic Measurement system|
Documented annual fuel savings for the first installed unit are on the order of 5 per- cent, with energy savings of 6.74 GWh.
GHG emissions could be expected to drop by 0.3 million metric tons carbon equivalent per year.
Cost savings are ap- proximately half a million dollars annually.
|Elimination or minimization of oscillation marks|
Adoption of this technique may lead to energy savings in the order of 30 PJ year.
Environmental savings are estimated to be 1.86 million ton of CO2 /year.