Cross Cutting TechnologyTechnologies & Measures
|Technology or Measure||Energy Savings Potential||CO2 Emission Reduction Potential Based on Literature||Costs||Development Status|
|Preventive and Predictive Maintenance|
Several estimates Preventive maintenance is estimated to reduce fuel consumption by 0.09 GJ/t-product and electricity consumption by 0.05 GJ/t-product.
Emissions reductions are estimated to be around 15 g CO2/t-product.
Annual operating and retrofit costs are estimated to be 0.03/t-product and $0.02/t-product, respectively.
|Energy Monitoring and Management System|
An additional 0.5% improvement in overall energy efficiency can be realized.
Emission reduction potential is estimated to be 3.7 kg CO2/t-product.
Retrofit capital costs are $0.23/t-product.
|Software Tools to Boost Steam System Efficiency|
Cumulative energy savings of around 20130 TJ/y have been enabled in various plants with the use of these tools.
Approximately 1.5 million tons of CO2/y savings have been realized with the use of such tools.
Use of these tools have enabled cumulative savings in excess of US $101 million/y in various plants.
|Process Heating Assessment and Survey Tool|
With the use of this tool, various alternatives resulting in 39 GJ/h savings have been identified for a reheating furnace
Cumulative annual energy savings of 5270 TJ/y have been realized with the use of this tool
In the US, cumulative emission reductions of 273 640 t-CO2/y have been realized with the help of this tool.
Cumulative cost savings of around US $39 million/y have been realized with the use of this tool.
|Insulation of Steam Lines|
Insulation can typically reduce energy losses by 90%.
Payback times between 10 to 13 months have been reported In one steel plant it was found that for every 100 feet of piping insulated, energy savings could be upto $19,000 each year (Worrell, et al., 2010. p. 52).
|Checking and Monitoring Steam Traps|
Energy savings for a regular system of steam trap checks and follow-up maintenance is estimated to be up to 10%
Using automatic monitoring it is estimated that an additional 5% cost over steam trap maintenance can be saved, with a payback time of 9 months.
|Recovery of Flash Steam|
Depending on the pressures involved, the flash steam contains approximately 10% to 40% of the energy content of the original condensate.
The economics of heat recovery projects are most favorable when the waste steam heat content is high and the flow is continuous. Average payback time for this measure is around 9 months.
The savings associated with an ongoing motor maintenance program could range from 2% to 30% of total motor system energy use.
|Variable Speed Drives on Flue Gas Control, Pumps and Fans|
Energy saving potential is estimated to be 0.02GJ/t-product (US EPA, 2010)
A plant in Germany saved 3.2 GWh/y and 325 GWh/y with the installation of VSDs (IPPC, 2009).
Implementation costs are estimated between $1.3/t-product (APP, 2010) to $2.0/t-product.
Investment costs for the German plant was €67 thousand. It provided annual savings of €32.5 thousand, giving a payback time of 2.1 years, and a RoI of 48%. (IPPC, 2009)
|Fan System Assessment Tool|
Cumulative annual energy savings of 52.8 TJ/y have been realized with the use of this tool.
Cumulative CO2 savings of 3022 t-CO2/y have been realized with the help of this tool.
Cumulative cost savings of around US $346 thousand/y have been realized with the use of this tool.
|Proper Fan Sizing|
In one plant installation of a smaller vent blower resulted in electricity savings of 896 MWh/y.
The smaller fan system enabled cost savings of $35,840/y and had a payback time of 5 months.
|Efficient Pumps and Motors|
Replacing a pump with a new efficient one reduces the energy use by 2% to 10%.
For a given duty, a pump that runs at the highest speed suitable for the application will generally be the most efficient option with the lowest initial cost.
|Proper Pump Sizing|
Correcting pump oversizing can save 15% to 25% of electricity consumption for pumping on average for the U.S. Industry.
|Multiple Pumps for Varying Loads|
In a pulp and paper plant, installation of a smaller pump (pony pum) reduced the overall energy consumption of the pumping system by 58%.
By reducing the impeller diameter from 320 mm to 280 mm, energy savings between 25 to 30% have been realized in plants in the US and the UK.
Maintenance costs were reduced by impeller trimming.
|Precision Castings, Surface Coatings or Polishing|
Energy savings are 36 MWh (or 2%) per year.
Additional cost of coating would be paid back in 5 months.
|Auditory Rotary Machines for Pump Efficiency|
Energy savings depend on how the pumps are operated. A reduction of 20-30% in electricity use is estimated.
$63,000-$65,000/year reduction in power costs.
|AIRMaster+ Software Tool for Improved Compressed Air System Performance|
This tool has helped realize cumulative savings of 992 TJ/y in various plants in the US.
Cumulative emission reductions are estimated at 55 thousand tonnes of CO2/y.
Cumulative cost savings in excess of US $5 million/y have been realized with the help of this tool.