Efficient Ladle Preheating

The ladle of the caster needs to be preheated, usually using gas burners. Fuel consumption for preheating the ladle containing liquid steel is estimated at 0.02 GJ/t-steel. Heat losses can occur through lack of lids and through radiation. The losses can be reduced by by installing temperature controls, installing hoods, by improved ladle management to reduce preheating need, and through the use of recuperative burners and oxyfuel burners.

Development Status Products
Commercial
steel

Efficient Ladle Preheating Costs & Benefits

Parent Process: Casting
Energy Savings Potential

In a US based facility installation of recuperative heaters reduced fuel consumption for ladle preheating by 28%.  This system saves approximately 14 TJ/y  of natural gas. 

CO2 Emission Reduction Potential

Emissions reduction of 1.1 kg CO2/t-steel is estimated (US EPA, 2010).

Costs

Capital costs of ladle heaters are reported to be $70 000/unit (Worrell et al., 2010. p. 97).

Efficient Ladle Preheating Publications

Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the U.S. Iron and Steel Industry

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) energy guide, Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the U.S. Iron and Steel Industry, discusses energy efficiency practices and technologies that can be implemented in iron and steel manufacturing plants. This guide provides current real world examples of iron and steel plants saving energy and reducing cost and carbon dioxide emissions.

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