Fuel PreparationTechnologies & Measures
|Technology or Measure||Energy Savings Potential||CO2 Emission Reduction Potential Based on Literature||Costs||Development Status|
|Optimizing Fuel Properties|
Identical kiln systems fired by lignite and hard coal show a difference of around 0.1 GJ/t clinker. Reductions in the range of 0.3 GJ/t clinker are reported by using finely ground coal instead of coarse fuel.
If results similar to those in Europe are achieved, between 9 and 28 kg of CO2 can be reduced for every ton of clinker produced.
Costs of different fuels and necessary processing involved in preparation has to be taken into consideration.
|Vertical Roller Mills for Coal Grinding|
7-10 kWh of electricity can be saved per ton of coal processed - depending on the coal grinability charactertistics (Often determined by Hardgrove Gringability Index (HGI)
5-7 kWh/t coal savings have been realised in Indian plants.
As compared to ball mills, using VRMs in raw material preparation can reduce power consumption by 20 -35% (8 - 10 kWh/t-raw material). This transformation can also help reduce the abrasive material requirements (on a weight basis) and costs by 80% and 20%, respectively (MIIT, 2012. p. 19)
In China, the application of this technology can help reduce CO2 reductions by 5.5 to 8 kg per ton of coal processed.
In India, the use of this technology helps reduce CO2 emissions by 4 to 6 kg per ton of coal processed.
Installation costs of $14 million (1US$=110¥) are reported for a 200 t/h capacity plant in Japan, including cost of supplemental facilities.
Installation costs between $4 million (for 30 tph capacity) and $8 million (for 100 tph capacity) - or between $80 000-135 000 per ton/h capacity - are reported in India.
Operating costs vary depending upon the cost of power, wear rate of mill internals, type of fuel ground etc. The operating costs are estimated to be 20% lower than the tube mill, and 50% lower than ball mill.
In China, installation of a VRM for coal grinding would entail 10 to 20% more capital investment. However, savings due to reduced energy costs reduced wear of material will result in a payback time of 1 to 2 years (MIIT, 2012. p.19)
|High-efficiency Separator/Classifier for Coal Grinding|
1.7 kWh of electricity can be saved per ton of coal processed.
In India, savings between 1.0-1.7 kWh per ton coal have been realised, depending on the fineness of coal.
In China CO2 emissions can be reduced by 1.3 kg per ton of coal processed.
In India CO2 emissions can be reduced byAround 1.4 kg per ton of coal processed.
Installation costs are estimated to be US$ 0.01 per ton of clinker produced annually.
In India, installation costs between US$ 0.2 - 0.4 million have been reported for this option.