General Measures for Ammonia PlantsTechnologies & Measures
|Technology or Measure||Energy Savings Potential||CO2 Emission Reduction Potential Based on Literature||Costs||Development Status|
|Advanced Process Control|
Average payback period varies between 6 months and 2.5 years (A2A Toolkit).
In an Australian plant, the payback time for the installation of APC software was less than 6 months. (Australian Government, 2009)
In a plant in Belgium that was already optimized, implementation of an APC saved an additionl € 400 000 per year, resulting in a payback time less than one year (Thyssenkrupp, unknowndate).
An APC that was implemented in a German plant and that has increased production by 2.5% had a payback time of less than 6 months (Honeywell, 2012).
|Improved Process Integration|
The cost of implementation is estimated at € 10/GJ of saved energy (Rafiqul et al., 2005 based on de Beer, 2000).
|Retrofitting Steam Turbines for Higher Efficiency|
The payback time of the steam turbine upgrade is usually in the order of 1 year. Costs can be reduced by including the upgrade in the normal turn-around schedule. The cost for upgrading two back-pressure turbines with more efficient condensing turbines in an ammonia plant in the US estimated to require an investment of $ 1.2 million (U.S. DOE, 2007)
|Retrofitting Gas Turbines for Higher Efficiency|
For a 1 500 tpd, investments are in the range of US $ 1 - 1.2 million (FAI, 2013).
|Installing Gas Turbines for Air Compression||Commercial|
|Medium Pressure Process Condensate Stripper||Commercial|
|Gas Expansion Turbines for Power Recovery||Commercial|
|Improved Air Compression||The cost of improvement is estimated at €6.4/GJ (Nieuwlaar, 2001 p.15) .||Commercial|
|Cooling at Suction End of Compressors|
Investment requirements are in the range of US $ 0.8 – 1.2 million for 500 tonnes of refrigeration used for suction cooling of synthesis gas compressor [2010 figures] (FAI, 2013).
|Motor System Optimization||Commercial|