Optimizing Fuel Properties

Selecting the right fuels, optimising the coal particle size and partially or completely drying the fuel, and in particular Lignite, outside the kiln system, and even outside of the cement plant, improves the energy efficiency of the kiln system.  Applicability of this option will depend, among others, on availability and cost of different fuels, climate, and availability of space and other infrastructure. 

In India, moisture content of Lignite is reduced frm 35% to to 18% by sun drying. 

Development Status Products

Optimizing Fuel PropertiesCosts & Benefits

Parent Process: Fuel Preparation
Energy Savings Potential

Identical kiln systems fired by lignite and hard coal show a difference of around 0.1 GJ/t clinker. Reductions in the range of 0.3 GJ/t clinker are reported by using finely ground coal instead of coarse fuel.

CO2 Emission Reduction Potential

Chinese flag If results similar to those in Europe are achieved, between 9 and 28 kg of CO2 can be reduced for every ton of clinker produced.


Costs of different fuels and necessary processing involved in preparation has to be taken into consideration.

Optimizing Fuel Properties Standards

Reference Document on Best Available Techniques in the Cement, Lime and Magnesium Oxide Manufacturing Industries

This is a reference document for Best Available Technologies available for Cement, Lime and Magnesium Oxide manufacturing industries and that have high relevance within the scope of the European Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) Directive (now titled as Industrial Emissions Directive following the 2010 recast). 

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Optimizing Fuel Properties Publications

Energy Efficiency and Resource Saving Technologies in Cement Industry


This Cement technologies booklet was compiled by the APP Cement Task Force (CTF) through one of its activities to help its member countries share information on all available energy efficient technologies generally used in the world’s cement industry. The document offers a comprehensive compilation of commercially-available energy efficient technologies used in the cement industry.

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