Pump Systems

Pump systems are major energy users and responsible of around 20% of electricity use in industry. The use of pumps is highest in the petrochemical, the pulp and paper and the chemicals industry, although pump systems are to be found in most industries. Studies indicate that pumping efficiency in manufacturing plants can be less than 40%. Oversized pumps and the use of throttled valves were identified as the two major contributors to the loss of efficiency. Energy savings in pumping systems of between 30% and 50% could be realised through equipment or control system changes. With a through assessment of the entire system and implementation of other measures, additional savings can be realized. Similar to other motor driven systems, best results in efficiency improvement are achieved by adopting a systems approach in designing, installing, operating, and maintaining the pump systems.

Pump SystemsSchematic

Pump SystemsTechnologies & Measures

Technology or MeasureEnergy Savings PotentialCO2 Emission Reduction Potential Based on LiteratureCostsDevelopment Status
High Efficiency Pumps

This measure is estimated to offer following improvement potentials (UNIDO, 2010):
• 25% for low efficiency base cases;
• 15% for medium efficiency base cases;
• 5% for high efficiency base cases;

Electrical and primary energy savings potential of this technology for different countries is estimated as following (UNIDO, 2010):

  Final (GWh/y) Primary (TJ/y)
US  6431 70610
Canada 1919 23902
EU 2050 19259
Thailand 350 3520
Vietnam 160 2286
brazil 490 5477

Total emission reduction potential, as kt CO2/y for different countries are estimated as (UNIDO, 2010): 

US 3876
Canada 954
EU 894
Thailand 181
Vietnam 78
brazil 71

Estimated typical capital costs of this measure for different system sizes (S) are:
• US $15000  for S < 37 kW;
• US $30000 for 37 kW < S < 75 kW;
• US $40000 for 75 kW < S < 150 kW;
• US $65000 for 150 kW < S < 375 kW;
• US $115500 for 375 kW < S < 745 kW; (UNIDO, 2010)

Cost of conserved energy, expressed as US $/MWh-saved, in different countries are estimated as following (UNIDO, 2010):

US 132.2
Canada 129.1
EU 137.1
Thailand 112.4
Vietnam 86.7
brazil 110.2

Commercial
Using Pressure Switches to Shut Down Unnecessary Pumps

This measure is estimated to offer following improvement potentials (UNIDO, 2010):
• 10% for low efficiency base cases;
• 5% for medium efficiency base cases;
• 2% for high efficiency base cases;

Electrical and primary energy savings potential of this technology for diffierent countries is estimated as following (UNIDO, 2010): 

  Final* (GWh/y) Primary* (TJ/y)
US 2869 31500
Canada 856 10663
EU 2059 19347
Thailand 162 1625
Vietnam 129 1840
brazil 235 2624

Total emission reduction potential, as kt CO2/y for different countries are estimated as (UNIDO, 2010): 

US 1729
Canada 426
EU 898
Thailand 83
Vietnam 63
brazil 34

Estimated typical capital costs of this measure for different system sizes (S) are:
• US $3000  for S < 37 kW;
• US $3000 for 37 kW < S < 75 kW;
• US $3000 for 75 kW < S < 150 kW;
• US $3000 for 150 kW < S < 375 kW;
• US $ for 375 kW < S < 745 kW; (UNIDO, 2010)

Cost of conserved energy, expressed as US $/MWh-saved, in different countries are estimated as following (UNIDO, 2010):

US 65.7
Canada 64.5
EU 76.6
Thailand 45.1
Vietnam 24.3
brazil 44.7

Commercial
Scale Removal from Components

This measure is estimated to offer following improvement potentials (UNIDO, 2010):
• 10% for low efficiency base cases;
• 5% for medium efficiency base cases;
• 2% for high efficiency base cases;

Electrical and primary energy savings potential of this technology for diffierent countries is estimated as following (UNIDO, 2010): 

  Final*
(GWh/y)
Primary*
(TJ/y
)
US 1721 18891
Canada 513 6395
EU 1235 11602
Thailand 151 1523
Vietnam 89 1263
brazil 146 1629

Total emission reduction potential, as kt CO2/y for different countries are estimated as (UNIDO, 2010): 

US 1037
Canada 255
EU 538
Thailand 1444
Vietnam 829
brazil 669

Estimated typical capital costs of this measure for different system sizes (S) are:
• US $6000  for S < 37 kW;
• US $6000 for 37 kW < S < 75 kW;
• US $9000 for 75 kW < S < 150 kW;
• US $12000 for 150 kW < S < 375 kW;
• US $15000 for 375 kW < S < 745 kW; (UNIDO, 2010)

Cost of conserved energy, expressed as US $/MWh-saved, in different countries are estimated as following (UNIDO, 2010):

US 330.9
Canada 320.3
EU 383.7
Thailand 69.1
Vietnam 43.3
brazil 128.5

Commercial
Use of Parallel Pumps – Pony PumpsIn a Finnish pulp and paper mill, the installation of a smaller (pony) pump running parallel to an existing pump, reduced the overall pumping energy requirements by 58%. (Worrell et. al., 2010. p. 63)Not available Not availableCommercial
Reducing Unnecessary Demand

This measure is estimated to offer following improvement potentials (UNIDO, 2010):
• 3.5% for low efficiency base cases;
• 2.5% for medium efficiency base cases;
• 1% for high efficiency base cases;

Electrical and primary energy savings potential of this technology for diffierent countries is estimated as following (UNIDO, 2010): 

  Final* (GWh/y) Primary* (TJ/y)
US 1362 14950
Canada 406 5061
EU 977 9181
Thailand 105 1057
Vietnam 41 593
brazil 155 1731

Total emission reduction potential, as kt CO2/y for different countries are estimated as (UNIDO, 2010): 

US 821
Canada 202
EU 426
Thailand 55
Vietnam 20
brazil 23

Estimated typical capital costs of this measure for different system sizes (S) are:
• US $1000  for S < 37 kW;
• US $1500 for 37 kW < S < 75 kW;
• US $2000 for 75 kW < S < 150 kW;
• US $2500 for 150 kW < S < 375 kW;
• US $3000 for 375 kW < S < 745 kW; (UNIDO, 2010)

Cost of conserved energy, expressed as US $/MWh-saved, in different countries are estimated as following (UNIDO, 2010):

US 84.1
Canada 81.4
EU 92.6
Thailand 30.6
Vietnam 27.5
brazil 36.2

Commercial
High Efficiency Motors in Pump Systems

This measure is estimated to offer following improvement potentials (UNIDO, 2010):
• 5% for low efficiency base cases;
• 3% for medium efficiency base cases;
• 1% for high efficiency base cases;

Electrical and primary energy savings potential of this technology for different countries is estimated as following (UNIDO, 2010): 

  Final* (GWh/y) Primary* (TJ/y)
US 1574 17283
Canada 470 5851
EU 1130 10615
Thailand 77 779
Vietnam 36 522
brazil 10 44066

 

Total emission reduction potential of installing more efficient motors for different countries are estimated as following (values in kt CO2/y) (UNIDO, 2010): 

US 948
Canada 233
EU 492
Thailand 40
Vietnam 18
brazil 16

Estimated typical capital costs of this measure for different system sizes (S) are:
• US $2200  for S < 37 kW;
• US $4500 for 37 kW < S < 75 kW;
• US $8000 for 75 kW < S < 150 kW;
• US $21000 for 150 kW < S < 375 kW;
• US $37500 for 375 kW < S < 745 kW; (UNIDO, 2010)

Cost of conserved energy, expressed as US $/MWh-saved, in different countries are estimated as following (UNIDO, 2010):

US 116.9
Canada 116.2
EU 115
Thailand 107.3
Vietnam 81.4
brazil 109.4

Commercial
Avoiding ThrottlingReplacing throttling valves with speed controls can reduce energy consumption between 10 to 60% (Sustainability Victoria, 2009)

Commercial
Variable Speed Drives for Pump Systems

This measure is estimated to offer following improvement potentials (UNIDO, 2010):
• 25% for low efficiency base cases;
•15% for medium efficiency base cases;
• 10% for high efficiency base cases;/p>

Electrical and primary energy savings potential of this technology for different countries is estimated as following (UNIDO, 2010): 

  Final* (GWh/y) Primary* (TJ/y)
US 12706 139919
Canada 3791 47229
EU 9119 85688
Thailand 724 7289
Vietnam 407 5820
brazil 1078 12036

Total emission reduction potential of adopting VSDs in pumping systems, as kt CO2/y for different countries are estimated as (UNIDO, 2010): 

US 7658
Canada 1885
EU 3977
Thailand 376
Vietnam 200
brazil 157

Estimated typical capital costs of this measure for different system sizes (S) are:
• US $4000  for S < 37 kW;
• US $9000 for 37 kW < S < 75 kW;
• US $18000 for 75 kW < S < 150 kW;
• US $30000 for 150 kW < S < 375 kW;
• US $65000 for 375 kW < S < 745 kW; (UNIDO, 2010)

Cost of conserved energy, expressed as US $/MWh-saved, in different countries are estimated as following (UNIDO, 2010):

US 44.5
Canada 44.2
EU 43.7
Thailand 24.9
Vietnam 17.7
brazil 27.8

Commercial
Removing Sediment/Scale from Piping

This measure is estimated to offer following improvement potentials (UNIDO, 2010):
• 12% for low efficiency base cases;
• 7% for medium efficiency base cases;
• 3% for high efficiency base cases;

Electrical and primary energy savings potential of this technology for diffierent countries is estimated as following (UNIDO, 2010): 

  Final (GWh/y) Primary (TJ/y)
US 3439 37768
Canada 1026 12785
EU 5034 47303
Thailand 406 4082
Vietnam 256 3654
brazil 303 3389

Total emission reduction potential, as kt CO2/y for different countries are estimated as (UNIDO, 2010): 

US 2073
Canada 510
EU 2195
Thailand 210
Vietnam 125
brazil 44

Estimated typical capital costs of this measure for different system sizes (S) are:
• US $3500  for S < 37 kW;
• US $3500 for 37 kW < S < 75 kW;
• US $7000 for 75 kW < S < 150 kW;
• US $10500 for 150 kW < S < 375 kW;
• US $14000 for 375 kW < S < 745 kW; (UNIDO, 2010)

Cost of conserved energy, expressed as US $/MWh-saved, in different countries are estimated as following (UNIDO, 2010):

US 126.3
Canada 123.2
EU 142.8
Thailand 22.0
Vietnam 11.5
brazil 47.6

Commercial
Isolating Flow Paths to Non-essential or Non-operating Equipment

This measure is estimated to offer following improvement potentials (UNIDO, 2010):
•20% for low efficiency base cases;
•10% for medium efficiency base cases;
•5% for high efficiency base cases;

Electrical and primary energy savings potential of this technology for diffierent countries is estimated as following (UNIDO, 2010): 

  Final*
(GWh/y)
Primary*
(TJ/y
)
US 10589 116265
Canada 3159 39357
EU 7600 71406
Thailand 678 6823
Vietnam 563 8040
brazil 899 10030

 

UNIDO (2010) estimates the  reduction potential of isolating flow paths are estimated as following (values in kt CO2/y): 

US 6382
Canada 1571
EU 3313
Thailand 352
Vietnam 276
brazil 131

UNIDO (2010) estimates typical capital costs of this measure for different system sizes (S) are:
• US $0  for S < 37 kW;
• US $0 for 37 kW < S < 75 kW;
• US $0 for 75 kW < S < 150 kW;
• US $0 for 150 kW < S < 375 kW;
• US $0 for 375 kW < S < 745 kW; 

Cost of conserved energy, expressed as US $/MWh-saved, in different countries are estimated as following (UNIDO, 2010):
US 0.0     Canada 0.0
EU 0.0     Thailand 0.0
Vietnam 0.0     brazil 0.0

Commercial
Predictive Maintenance Programme

This measure is estimated to offer following improvement potentials (UNIDO, 2010):
• 12% for low efficiency base cases;
• 9% for medium efficiency base cases;
• 3% for high efficiency base cases;

Electrical and primary energy savings potential of this technology for different countries is estimated as following (UNIDO, 2010): 

  Final (GWh/y) Primary (TJ/y)
US  3348 36764
Canada 999 12445
EU 2403 22579
Thailand 250 2513
Vietnam 95 1359
brazil 353 3931

Total emission reduction potential, as kt CO2/y for different countries are estimated as (UNIDO, 2010): 

US 2018
Canada 497
EU 1048
Thailand 130
Vietnam 47
brazil 52

Estimated typical capital costs of this measure for different system sizes (S) are:
• US $8000  for S < 37 kW;
• US $8000 for 37 kW < S < 75 kW;
• US $10000 for 75 kW < S < 150 kW;
• US $10000 for 150 kW < S < 375 kW;
• US $12000 for 375 kW < S < 745 kW; (UNIDO, 2010)

Cost of conserved energy, expressed as US $/MWh-saved, in different countries are estimated as following (UNIDO, 2010):
US 189.0
Canada 182.0
EU 223.1
Thailand75.0 
Vietnam 70.6
brazil 87.3

Commercial
Impeller Replacement or Trimming

Efficiency improvements that can be obtained with this measure are estimated to be as following: (UNIDO, 2010):
• 20% for low efficiency base cases
• 15% for medium efficiency base cases
• 10% for high efficiency base cases

Electrical and primary energy savings potential of this technology for different countries are estimated as following (UNIDO, 2010):

  Final* (GWh/y) Primary* (TJ/y)
US 9984 109621
Canada 2979 37108
EU 7166 67326
Thailand 556 5598
Vietnam 208 2970
brazil 817 9109

 

Total emission reduction potential, as kt CO2/y, for different countries are estimated as following (UNIDO, 2010): 

US 6017
Canada 1481
EU 3124
Thailand 289
Vietnam 102
brazil 119

Estimated typical capital costs of this measure for different system sizes (S) are:
• US $5000  for S < 37 kW;
• US $10000 for 37 kW < S < 75 kW;
• US $15000 for 75 kW < S < 150 kW;
• US $20000 for 150 kW < S < 375 kW;
• US $25000 for 375 kW < S < 745 kW; (UNIDO, 2010)

Cost of conserved energy, expressed as US $/MWh-saved, are estimated as following: (UNIDO, 2010)

US 57.0
Canada 55.5
EU 59.3
Thailand 35.5
Vietnam 33.6
brazil 37.2

Commercial

Pump Systems Publications

Improving the Energy Efficiency of Industrial Equipment

This Discussion Paper sets out ideas for improving the energy efficiency of new industrial equipment such as motor-driven systems, that is, electric motors connected to equipment such as pumps and fans, and gas fuelled equipment such as boilers. The document is prepared by a a joint initiative of Australian, State and Territory and New Zealand Governments, titled Equipment Energy Efficiency Program

Page Number: 

17-24

Pump Systems Guidelines

Pump Systems Case Studies

Pump Systems Tools

Pumping System Assessment Tool (PSAT)

The Pumping System Assessment Tool (PSAT) is a free online software tool to help industrial users assess the efficiency of pumping system operations. PSAT uses achievable pump performance data from Hydraulic Institute standards and motor performance data from the MotorMaster+ database to calculate potential energy and associated cost savings. The tool also enables users to save and retrieve log files, default values, and system curves for sharing analyses with other users.