References for the Ammonia Industry

Abrardo, J.M. and V. Khuruna. (1995). Hydrogen Technologies to Meet Refiners’ Future Needs. Hydrocarbon Processing 2 74, pp.43-49 (February 1995)

Christensen, P.V. (2001a). Design and operation of large capacity ammonia plants. 4th conference for development and integration of Petrochemical Industries in the Arab States. Bahrain, May 7-8.   

Christensen, P.V. (2001b). Revamping ammonia plants to follow feedstock situation and market demands. Presentation at the FAI symposium on improving productivity of ammonia and urea plants, New Delhi, India, April 19-20.

The Fertilizer Association India (FAI) 2013. Energy Efficiency Best Practices with Reference to Indian Ammonia Industry. New Delhi. (Not published)

Insulcon (unknown date). Wearflex telescopic seals – Flue gas tight seals, to compensate extreme axial movements. Company leaflet. 

Malhotra A. and S. Knez, (2002). Consider KRES for fuel cost savings and increasing capacity in the ammonia plant. IFA Technical Conference, Chennai 24-27 September 2002, India.

Malhotra, A., Kramer, P., Singh, S. (2004). Revamp of Liaohe’s Ammonia Plant with KRES Technology to Reduce Naturals Gas Usage.

Maxwell, G. R. (2004). Synthetic nitrogen products: a practical guide to the products and processes. Springer, London, 2004. ISBN-10: 0306482258.

MTR (2011). Hydrogen Recovery from Ammonia Plant Purge Gas. Brochure Membrane Technology & Research Inc.

Munch, B., Elholm, P., Stenseng, M. (2007). From Science to Proven Technology – Development of New Topsøe Prereforming catalyst AR-401. Presented at the Nitrogen + Syngas 2007 Conference, Bahrein, 25-28 February 2007. 

Patel, M.R., Shah, C.N., Mehta, B.P.S. (unknown date) Pre-reformer, the solution for increasing plant throughput. IFFCO, India.

Rafiqul, I., Weber, C., Lehmann, B., Voss, A. (2005). Energy efficiency improvements in ammonia production—perspectives and uncertainties. Energy 30,pp. 2487–2504. 

Ravi, K., Joshi, Y., Dhingra, S., Guha, B. (1989). Simulation of primary and secondary reformers for improved energy performance of an ammonia plant. Chemical Engineering and Technology 12 (5), pp.358-364.

Yousaf, S. (2011) .Ammonia/urea plant rejuvenation. Nitrogen + Syngas 310, March/April 2011. 

Ullmann’s (2011). “Ullmann’s Encyclopedia for Industrial Chemistry”. Volume 3.\

Vaish, V.S. and Patel, M.R. (2002). Stretching the capacity of a 23-year old Kellogg ammonia plant.IFA Technical Conference, Chennai India, 24-27 September 2002.

Worrell, E. and Blok, K., (1994). Energy Savings in the Nitrogen Fertilizer Industry in the Netherlands. Energy, vol. 19, pp.195-209.

Worrell, E (2013). Personal communication. Utrecht University, Netherlands.