Steam ReformingTechnologies & Measures
|Technology or Measure||Energy Savings Potential||CO2 Emission Reduction Potential Based on Literature||Costs||Development Status|
|Using Improved Materials for Reformer Tubes|
Replacement of the reformer tubes in the Indian plant required an investment of Rs. 50 million. The payback time was 40 months (PCRA,, 2009 p.335).
Investments for a 1 300 tpd plant are around US $ 2 million [2011 values] (FAI, 2013).
|Heat Recovery from Reformer Flue Gas|
Reducing the stack temperature by 100˚C will result in energy savings of approximately 0.4 GJ/ t NH3 (Christensen, 2001).
By installing a feed pre-heat coil in the low temperature convection section of the reformer flue gas duct, a plant in India was able to reduce flue gas temperature of the reformer from 170˚C to 148˚C and eliminated the need for a fired heater, resulting in energy savings of 0.17 GJ/t NH3 (Nand and Goswami, 2009).
Another Indian installed a natural gas heating coil to recover the heat from the reformer flue gas. The reformer flue gas temperature was reduced from 190˚C to 160˚C, saving 0.18 GJ/t NH3 (Nand and Goswami, 2009).
At an ammonia plant in Pakistan, a demineralized water preheating coil was installed to recover heat from the flue gas (240˚C). The temperature of the flue gas was lowered to 137˚C, recovering approximately 44 GJ/hour of waste heat from the flue gases (Yousaf, 2011)
Heat recovery in the Pakistani plant saved $ 2 Million/year (Yousaf, 2011)
For a 1 300 tpd plant, the required investments are estimated to be around US $ 700 000 [2008 values] (FAI, 2013).
|Using Improved Catalyst Designs for Primary Reforming||Commercial|
|Improving the Design for Induced Draft Fan Ducts|
For a 1 500 tpd plant, investments are estimated at around US $ 200 000 (FAI, 2013).
|Heat Exchange Autothermal Reforming|
The investment cost are stated to be 303 Yen/tonne ammonia, resulting in a payback time of one year (1999 figures) (ECCJ, 1999, 148).
|Increasing Reformer Operating Pressure||Commercial|
|Modification of Burners in Primary Reforming|
Replacement of burner nozzles for a 1 500 tpd plant is estimated to cost around US $ 0.4 million [2012 values] (FAI, 2013)
|Using an Adiabatic Pre-reformer|
Energy consumption can be reduced by 4-10% (IPTS/EC, 2007; Nieuwlaar, 2001; Patel et al., unknown date)
In Netherlands, a plant in Rozenburg, energy savings of about 4% were realized with the installation of an adiabatic pre-reformer. (Worrell and Blok, 1994).
For a 2 000 t/day plant, the investment cost associated with the installation of a pre-reformer is reported to ¥280 million, resulting in a payback time of 1.7 years (ECCJ, 1999 p. 156).
According to Nieuwlaar (2001) the investment cost is estimated at €7.5/GJ.
For the plant in Netherlands, the installation costs for the adiabatic pre-reformer was estimated as $6/tonne ammonia, and the payback time was estimated to be one to three years (in 1990 dollars) (Worrell and Blok, 1994).
For a 1500 tpd plant, the investments are in the range of US $ 10 million (2000 values) (FAI, 2013).
|Insulation of Reformer Furnace|
An assessment for an Australian ammonia plant estimated that the payback time for improving insulation on reformer furnace will have a payback time of less than one year (Australian Government, 2009).
|Improved Design of Secondary Reformer Burner|
The cost of replacing burner nozzles in a 1 500 tpd plant is reported to be around US $500 000(FAI, 2013).
|Using Improved Catalyst Designs for Secondary Reforming||Commercial|
|Shifting Reformer Duty|
This measure increases the capital costs (FAI, 2013).
|High Emissivity Coating of Radiant Section Refractory|
For a 1 500 tpd plant, the implementation costs are estimated to be around US $ 25 000 FAI, 2013).
|Heat Exchanger Reformer|
|Lower Steam to Carbon Ratio on Reformer||Commercial|
|Installing a Feed Gas Saturator||Commercial|
|Increasing Mixed Feed Preheat Temperature|
For a 1 500 tpd plant, an investment in the range of US $ 500 000 is required to preheat fuel gas using low grade recovered heat (FAI, 2013)..
Steam Reforming Reference Documents
Reference Document on Best Available Techniques for the Manufacture of Large Volume Inorganic Chemicals - Ammonia, Acids and Fertilisers
Prepared by the Institute for Prospective Technical Studies of European Commision, this document provides detalied information on Best Available Technologies applicable to Ammonia production – as well as on the production of Acids and Fertilizers.