The chemical and petrochemical sector is the largest industrial energy consumer. Ammonia production is responsible for about 17% of the energy consumed in this sector. In 2004, the ammonia manufacturing industry consumed 5.6 EJ of fossil fuels, of which 2.7 EJ was for energy and 2.9 EJ for feedstock use.1 Although the energy use per tonne of ammonia has decreased by 30% over the last thirty years, adopting best available technologies (BAT) worldwide can further reduce energy use by 20-25%1, 2 and decrease greenhouse gas emissions by 30%.2
Cement is a binding agent and is a key ingredient of the most used man-made material: concrete. The demand for cement is strongly correlated to the rate of economic development.
Iron and steel are key products for the global economy.
The pulp and paper sector is a significant energy user and currently ranks fourth in the industrial sector for its energy use. In 2006, the sector consumed 6.7 EJ of energy, which represents 6% of global industrial energy use.
Over the past twenty years, glass demand has grown more quickly than GDP and is still growing at nearly 4% per year. About 0.5-0.8 EJ of energy is used for glass production worldwide, and the energy used in the production of container and flat glass results in emissions of about 50-60 Mt CO2 per year.1,2 With the adoption of best available technologies, energy efficiency of the sector can be improved by as much as 40% in developing countries and up to 35% in industrialized ones, collectively presenting an energy saving potential of around 0.6 EJ/year.3